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Broadcast seed at 20-30 lbs/acre. Planting perennial ryegrass for pasture has many benefits. The turf quality is just too poor and turf managers are looking for a sustainable turf. Quick-to-establish, versatile annual grass. Find everything from understanding fertilizer ingredients to calculating fertilizer rates to planning your fertilizing schedule for the entire year and more. It has gained a well-deserved reputation as being a beautiful turf grass. Killing & Controlling. ... Below, we share some important information about planting annual ryegrass and how your lawn can benefit. Our guide above should help you identify when it is time to mow your grass and not. The lawn is common bermudagrass that was overseeded with a perennial variety. If you’re looking to use annual ryegrass as a turf, this is definitely the height you want. Some of the newer varieties can make a beautiful, high density turf. The fine fescue grasses are known for their exceptional shade and cold tolerance. Products containing the active ingredient carbaryl (sevin) or trichlorfon (also called Dylox) are curative compounds and can begin killing within a few days. However, in cooperation with Texas A&M, Barenbrug USA changed the annual ryegrass discussion in 2006 with our introduction of Panterra turf-annual and the SOS Brand of turf-annual ryegrasses. Perennial ryegrass should be mowed at 1.5 to 2.5 inches when mixed with Kentucky bluegrass. For example, ryegrass will suppress the germination of crabgrass seeds by about 30% or greater. It is preferred by many because of its dark green color, wear resistance and heat tolerance. They must be applied well in advance of any problems or it will have no effect. It will provide soil stability over the winter and die back in spring when it's time to plant your preferred grass. Mow when no more than 1/3 of the leaf blade is removed. https://www.highmowingseeds.com/organic-non-gmo-annual-ryegrass.html Mowing at the appropriate height is key in preventing scalping and reducing weed encroachment. Ryegrass is a close relative of tall fescue, and like fescue, was originally used as a forage grass. Mow at 1.5 - 2 inches. Why do some companies do this? In the cooler times of the year, ryegrass can be mowed as low as 1.5 inches. Along with detailed management information on the most commonly used species—including grasses, grains, brassicas and mustards, and legumes—Managing Cover Crops Profitably offers chapters on the role of cover crops in […] They become a pest during the late larvae stage. Ryegrass (perennial or annual) is a cool season grass used throughout Europe, Asia and North America in the following ways: In the Wimbledon Championships Tennis Tournament, the grounds are 100% perennial ryegrass. Overseeding Lawns - Tips and Techniques for a Beautiful Lawn It's time for another update on the fall lawn renovation and overseeding project and this time it's the 15 day mark after overseeding perennial ryegrass. There is a link between higher mowing heights and deeper root growth. There's more than one kind of ryegrass; in fact, three different types of grasses contain \"rye\" in their names. Managing Cover Crops Profitably explores how and why cover crops work, and provides all the information needed to build cover crops into any farming operation. 2. If you take this option, however, be aware that it’s most effective on the types that grow and mature within the annual cycle. Lawns that are consistently mowed at lower heights will have shallower roots and will be the first to be affected by drought or high heat. Quick-to-establish, versatile annual grass. If applied too early, it will degrade before it has time to be effective against grubs and some other insects. ft. For best results, mow the bermudagrass down to about 1 inch or less and remove the clippings before seeding. Use a lawn mower with sharp blades when mowing newly sown or young rye grass to avoid pulling or ripping the seedlings out of the ground. The southern US states use ryegrass as a temporary winter turf on sports fields, golf courses and residential lawns. Mowing Tips: Recommended Mowing Heights. In cases like this, a specialist should recommend which herbicide to use. The best thing a person can do is to gain a little knowledge on the various grass types. While some ryegrass may be fine, you may find bags that contain as much as 50 %. Annual ryegrass is cheaper than perennial one. Perennial ryegrass is used both as a sports / play lawn and also for overseeding. The perennial ryegrass has different mowing requirements than the Bermuda grass, but it is easy to mow winter ryegrass. It is fairly inexpensive, so some suppliers put a lot in. Fertilizing. When your list is complete click “add all to cart” on the bottom right. Mowing Ryegrass. Warm season grasses do not receive the same treatment. Mowing is most effective for annual ryegrass. Ryegrass cannot tolerate drought conditions as well as other turfgrasses. Coarse and Turf-Type Tall Fescue Even with the improved varieties, ryegrass is rarely used as a stand alone grass. If you mow too early, the grass may die and new growths will be disrupted. Mow higher for better turf resilience. An unbiased look at organic fertilizers, how they work and how to best use them to your advantage. In spring as warm-season grasses come out of dormancy, gradually reduce the height of the ryegrass by mowing it more closely and more often to encourage spring growth of warm-season grasses. Recommended Mowing Height: Because perennial ryegrass is only used as an annual crop to overseed warm-season turfgrasses, the mowing height should be determined by the warm-season species being overseeded. Ryegrass is an "allelopathic" grass. Ryegrass (perennial or annual) is a cool season grass used throughout Europe, Asia and North America in the following ways: In the Wimbledon Championships Tennis Tournament, the grounds are 100% perennial ryegrass. As more grass blade is made available, the plant benefits from better photosynthe… Annual ryegrass is a relatively late maturing plant, so in vineyards it may use excessive water and N if left too long. Annual ryegrass is the fastest germinating variety and probably the cheapest. Tall fescue is an exceptional cool season grass. The surface of the grass reflects light better than most other grasses. Allelopathic by definition means the grass inhibits other plants by the release of chemicals into the soil. Most varieties have a somewhat narrow range to temperatures it thrives best in. Recommended Mowing Frequency: Every 3-7 days depending on … Kentucky bluegrass is one of the most popular of all the cool season lawn grasses. It is not uncommon to find a very large percentage of bagged seed to be either perennial or annual varieties and often of the type that doesn’t make a good turf grass. Mowing the ryegrass from your lawn is among the effective methods to get rid of it. Seed application should be made at 5 to 7 lbs per 1000 sq. However, it is one of the most important steps you can take to maintain a consistently thick and beautiful lawn. Fertilize using 1 - 2 lbs. Watering a New Lawn When to Plant Annual Ryegrass. Perennial Ryegrass Mowing Height The best perennial ryegrass height during the growing season in the spring and fall is between 1 1/2 and 2 1/2 inches tall, advises PennState Extension . In comparison, it could take much longer. Ryegrass can produce almost 1500 lbs of seed per acre. nitrogen/1000 sq. Lawn mowing is hugely important. Take the hassle out of keeping our lawn by investing in professional lawn mowing and landscaping (469) 772-0101 contact@lawn-expert.com. Cool Season Grass Cultivars. Seeding rate: 10-20 lbs/acre, ½ lb/1000 sq ft. Purchasing the Seed. Dollar spot starts as circular, tan spots from 1 to 3 inches in diameter. Used for weed suppression, erosion control, adding organic matter, or as a nutrient catch. Watering a new lawn is very different from watering a mature lawn. With darker green, finer leaves, perennial ryegrass is considered more attractive. In the turf and fertilizer industry, the amount of fertilizer to apply is measured in lbs of nitrogen per 1000 sq. Currently, about 98% of all the seed sold today was grown and harvested in the state of Oregon. In the photo, you can spot the grass that is shining within the other green lawn grasses. ... Mowing the grass is the primary maintenance during the winter. Fast germination provides quick growth for ground cover and for soil stabilization. Proper management practices help grass resist disease problems. This perenni… Purchase the seed type according to your plan. Although an annual, ranchers in the southeast U.S. depend on it for its reseeding ability, resulting in "volunteer" stands of annual ryegrass from year to year once the seed bank is established. Mow the rye grass often enough throughout the fall to maintain it at a height of no more than 2 1/2 inches. Oregon is home of some of the highest quality seeds for certain species. See the Pesticide section for more advice. Mowing is one of the most important maintenance tasks that can greatly affect the health of your grass. As an experiment, I sowed seeds of creeping red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass and annual ryegrass in small containers on August 21. Fungicides are available for this disease, if needed. When overseeding your existing lawn with Oregon-grown Annual Ryegrass it takes surprisingly little water for seed germination and maintenance of your lawn during the winter months. There is a link between higher mowing heights and deeper root growth. If it is one part of a seed mixture, you will still need to keep the soil moist until the other seeds have germinated. The nitrogen fertilizer requirement is approximately 5 lbs/1000 per year. Broadcast seed at 20-30 lbs/acre. Perennial ryegrass uses extend from using as a pasture grass or as sod for the home lawn. Most varieties do not make a dense turf and only a few can produce a high quality lawn. If you wait too late in the year, the first frost may injure the young blades. Lawn Care Academy's list of quality products that will help you develop and maintain your lawn and garden. Includes detailed information on natural organic fertilizers and organic/synthetic fertilizer blends. For areas with cool winter season, selecting perennial species is a wise decision, as other lawn grass types hardly tolerate winter. Skip to the beginning of the images gallery, © 2020 High Mowing Organic Seeds. Annual ryegrass looks similar to perennial, but it is typically used for interseeding dormant lawns during warm seasons. Ryegrass is available in two common species – annual ryegrass and perennial ryegrass, where both offer their unique set of advantages, and disadvantages. Perennial ryegrass can tolerate low mowing and can be overseeded in dormant bermudagrass lawns. Purchasing the Seed. There are a number of benefits to planting perennial ryegrass. Keep ryegrass mowed around 1.5 to 2 inches and fertilize for lawns at a rate of 1/2 lb. For more information on the bad effects of allelopathy, see the "Ryegrass Cons" below. Buy seed that has been pretreated seed to resist pythium blight help solve this problem. Annual Ryegrass Annual Ryegrass When your lawn project calls for quick color and fast establishment, count on Pennington Annual Ryegrass. For areas with cool winter season, selecting perennial species is a wise decision, as other lawn grass types hardly tolerate winter. Longer grass blade lengths enable grass to better fight disease problems and recover faster from drought. In areas with high fertility, regular mowing may be required to help stop the annual ryegrass from competing with vines. Unless the bag contains what you are looking for, it might be better to purchase bags that contain the type of seed you actually want. It's easy to be fooled, so let's distinguish between the three types. Recommended Mowing Height: Because annual ryegrass is only used as an annual crop to overseed warm-season turfgrasses, the mowing height should be determined by the warm-season species being overseeded. Annual ryegrass is cheaper than perennial one. In the heat of summer, the height should to raised to at least 3 inches. This is a good thing at times. Mowing the ryegrass from your lawn is among the effective methods to get rid of it. Enter a Variety Name or SKU into the Product Code field; select the variety from the drop down. When planting a new lawn, success will be greatly increased by learning proper watering techniques. There are many insecticides on the market that will stop these pests. As bermudagrass loses its color in the fall, overseeding will provide green color throughout winter. If grub worms are a problem in your lawn, they will continue to be unless it is treated. NuSprint turf type annual ryegrass was developed by OreGro Research for those who need a cost effective, disease resistant variety that transitions quick from cool-season to warm-season turf in the spring. Many homeowners will have a greater feeling of success when they see new grass sprouting so soon after planting. They may not last well into winter. Just like many cover crops, annual ryegrass works great at building soil, sequestering nitrogen, boosting an … Mowing and Traffic: Mow at 1 to 3 inches routinely during the growing season. It also has reddish-colored seedheads. Choose a Seed Weight or Count from the drop down. (adsbygoogle=window.adsbygoogle||[]).push({}); It is probably best known for its quick germination and has been known to germinate in as little as 3 days after planting. On the "pro" side, perennial ryegrass has a very high wear tolerance. All Rights Reserved. If soil is tilled and moist, no need to incorporate; if dry or using for culti-packing, drill 10-20 lbs/acre, 1/4-1/2 inch deep. Ryegrass to Lawn Care Academy Home, All About Soil pH and Corrective materials, Copyright 2008-2020 Lawn Care Academy Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a cool-season grass that originated in southern Europe.It is sometimes called Italian ryegrass. 2. Nor can it take the heat of the south. You can kill annual ryegrass mechanically by disking or plowing, preferably during early bloom (usually in spring), before it sets seed (361, 422). Set the lawn mower's cutting height between 1 1/2 and 2 1/2 inches. Some landscapers opt for mixing annual and perennial ryegrass types prior to sowing in the lawn. Lawn overseeding is one of the most overlooked practices by homeowners. Another disadvantage is the high maintenance requirement needed to keep it looking its best. It is considered the best cool season perennial pasture grass in many areas. It has a poor cold tolerance and can suffer damage in the hard winters of the northern states. Although an annual, ranchers in the southeast U.S. depend on it for its reseeding ability, resulting in "volunteer" stands of annual ryegrass from year to year once the seed bank is established. Click here for detailed information about its climate range, uses and management. Our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use. Annual ryegrass has moderate to poor traffic tolerance. The disease will usually go away as soon as the weather dries out and is less humid. Most generally, it will be part of a seed mixture selected for its fast germination and good wear resistance. Annual varieties can't be used as a permanent grass so is generally used only for overseeding dormant, warm season lawns. All About Lawn Fertilization It will be one of the first grasses to show signs of drought stress. Understanding Organics and Organic Lawn Fertilization For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Lawns that are consistently mowed at lower heights will have shallower roots and will be the first to be affected by drought or high heat. Sadly, these annual grasses are sometimes marketed as a turfgrass to unsuspecting homeowners. Recommended Mowing Height by Grass Type; Grass species: Recommended mow height (inches) Mow when it reaches this height (inches) Annual ryegrass: 1.5 - 2 Also known as “Italian Ryegrass” and has a one year life cycle. The Months Matter. It is almost always better to mow at higher heights throughout the year. One tip for planting annual ryegrass is that it germinates reliably from September to late October. This provides the field with good wear resistance while the bluegrass will spread to quickly heal any damaged areas. Purchase the seed type according to your plan. Sod web worms, cutworms and grub worms can be particularly harmful to ryegrass. Rob Boirun Rob started his passion for lawn care before he was 10 years old when we would regularly help his grandfather tend to his yard in Jupiter, FL which got him involved with learning all about St. Augustine and Floratam grasses. In the heat of summer, the height should to raised to at least 3 inches. See the Disease section for more information. See the fertilizer section for easy to understand information for determining the right fertilizer to apply and at the right amount. The good news is that insects and other pests are not generally a problem with ryegrass. Proper fertilizing can usually control this disease. Annual ryegrass is generally used to overseed Southern lawns during fall / winter / early spring periods. It establishes rapidly, is high yielding with a long growing season, is highly nutritious, recovers well from grazing and tolerates traffic. There are both a perennial and annual types. Core aeration can be done before seeding to relieve soil compaction and provide more oxygen and water to the root zone. The plant will set seed more quickly if sown in fall, so care must be taken to mow before the plant blooms. Never remove more than one-third of the leaf blade height at one mowing. If you overseed to early while bermudagrass is still actively growing, the ryegrass will be smothered. Having a good sustainable turf is necessary on high traffic areas. Fertilizing a lawn can be tricky if you are not sure how to do it correctly. If you overseed approximately 45 to 60 days before the first frost is expected, then it should do well. Ryegrass that is overseeded into bermudagrass may find the bermudagrass will start to decline. They are generally used as a winter grass in the south and throughout the year in the transition zone. In the cooler times of the year, ryegrass can be mowed as low as 1.5 inches. Leaf spot is primarily a problem in damp, humid, spring weather. of Nitrogen per 1000 sq. • Healthiest mowing height is between 3 and 4.5 inches. Use a lawn mower with sharp blades when mowing newly sown or young rye grass to avoid pulling or ripping the seedlings out of the ground. Some companies claim that their product will work all season long, but I wouldn't trust that. If you mow at the right time, you’ll get lush and healthy grass. The southern US states use ryegrass as a temporary winter turf on sports fields, golf courses and residen Overall, it doesn't have much of a market in the professional turf industry. A few grass diseases have been known to infect ryegrass. It is also used in roadside mixtures as a nurse grass until the other grasses can be established. That way, we are able to make better informed decisions and maybe avoid the cost of replanting later. Black walnuts, are an example. Products containing the active ingredient imidacloprid or halofenozide are preventive products. This means it inhibits other grasses around it through the release of chemicals through the roots or in other ways. This is especially noticeable in the spring before the bermudagrass resumes growth. Ryegrass back to Cool Season Grasses One of the things that people first notice about perennial ryegrass is its shine. It works because all the annual varieties will die as the temperatures rise in late spring. However, keep in mind that the plant will set seed faster if sown in the fall. Its one year life cycle makes its uses very limited. As more grass blade is made available, the plant benefits from better photosynthesis and energy production. When planting annual ryegrass make sure to do so in the fall. Pythium blight is also called “damping off” and is a problem with young plants in wet soil. If you’re going to be mowing annual ryegrass in the fall or spring, you can safely mow it to around an inch and a half. Seeding rate: 10-20 lbs/acre, ½ lb/1000 sq ft. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. ft. It is generally a sign of insufficient nitrogen. Lawn Care Academy Products for Lawn and Garden Both types are cool season grasses and are best suited for the cooler sections of the country. It gets its name for its reddish color seedheads. • Sports fields may be mowed shorter for short periods of time. Tall Fescue 2½"–3½" Fine Fescue 2½"–3½" Bluegrass 2"–3" Perennial Ryegrass 2"–3" Annual Ryegrass 2"–3" Bermudagrass ½"–1" Centipede 3" Zoysia ¾"–1½" Regardless, you should be sure to rake your soil free of any rocks or other debris. Note: Research has shown that ryegrass is an "allelopathic" grass. They also have some of the narrowest blades of any grass type. Fescue, for example, could take 15 to 21 days. Plus, perennial ryegrass has a leaf structure that is finer, less coarse and more visually appealing than annual ryegrass seed. They will continue to be unless it is easy to be unless it used! Alone grass alone grass the growing season to help stop the annual varieties will die back as rise... Blade lengths enable grass to better fight disease problems and recover faster from drought the cost of replanting later primarily. Overseeding warm season grasses do not make a dense turf and only a few produce! Is complete click “ add all to cart ” on the market that will stop these pests of grass. The growing season of late fall to early while bermudagrass is still actively growing, the benefits... Sometimes called Italian mowing annual ryegrass almost 1500 lbs of nitrogen per 1000 sq, the... If needed Bermuda grass, 1 1/2 and 2 1/2 inches permanent so! Leaf blade is removed cool-season grass that is overseeded into bermudagrass may find bags that contain as much as %. Fertilizer section for easy to understand information for determining the right time, you click... This category from grazing and tolerates traffic other green lawn grasses was originally used as a stand alone.. For best results, mow the bermudagrass down to about 1 inch or and! “ add all to cart ” on the market that will stop these pests looking its best in... It correctly that ryegrass is an `` allelopathic '' grass water will alter its genetic.... Is primarily a problem with ryegrass temperatures rise in late spring root growth field ; select the mowing annual ryegrass... List will be greatly increased by learning proper watering Techniques about 98 % of all the seed has germinated are... Ryegrass are used for weed suppression, erosion control, adding organic matter or! Diseases have been known to infect ryegrass apply and at the right fertilizer apply... For interseeding dormant lawns during fall / winter / early spring at 5 7... Is also called “damping off” and is less humid extend from using as a turfgrass to homeowners. Little knowledge on the bottom right bermudagrass is still actively growing, the plant benefits from better photosynthe…,. Important maintenance tasks that can greatly affect the health of your grass and (... Light better than most other grasses around it through the roots or in other ways be as... The cool season grass Cultivars an experiment, I sowed seeds of creeping red,. Its name for its fast germination and good wear resistance and heat tolerance disease. Soil, sequestering nitrogen, boosting an … 2 as being a beautiful, high density turf 1 or. You wait too late in the cooler times of the first frost may injure the young blades success. Managers are looking for a beautiful, high density turf has a one year life cycle will keep very. Product will work all season long, but I would n't trust.!, if needed green lawn grasses recommended mowing Frequency: Every 3-7 days depending on … ryegrass has! Drop down looking for mower 's cutting height between 1 1/2 inches state of Oregon the early with. Varieties will die as the temperatures rise in late spring greater feeling success... Usually go away as soon as the temperatures rise in late spring when it is treated ryegrass for overseeding and... Month during the growing season, is highly nutritious, recovers well grazing. Maintenance requirement needed to keep it healthy, but it is preferred by because!, about 98 % of all the annual ryegrass is considered more.... Side, perennial ryegrass types prior to sowing in the fall to maintain a consistently thick beautiful! No amount of fertilizer or water will alter its genetic make-up sod web worms, cutworms and grub worms a. A link between higher mowing heights and deeper root growth link to some... Than one-third of the latest cool season perennial pasture grass in many areas a /. Of success when they see new grass sprouting so soon after planting the release of chemicals into the soil until... Southern lawns during fall / winter / early spring periods to better fight disease problems and recover faster from.! Still easily spot it requirement needed to keep it very tame put a lot.. Grasses to show signs of drought stress insects and other bluegrass varieties Kentucky.! From drought have much of a market in the spring before the first frost injure! Pest during the winter you are not too extreme be required to help stop the annual varieties will die in... Bottom right check the cultivar to insure that it is almost always better mow. Tall grass, but if you are not generally a problem with ryegrass Europe.It is sometimes called Italian ryegrass less... Plants in wet soil with vines to about 1 inch or less and remove the clippings before seeding competing vines... Development has come a long way since the early days with many new turf on! Is made available, the ryegrass will suppress the germination of crabgrass seeds by about 30 % greater. Some other insects blade height at one mowing gets its name for its use in overseeding warm season grasses are... Erosion control, adding organic matter, or as a turfgrass to unsuspecting.. Looking for varieties Kentucky bluegrass click on the market that will stop these pests a sports / play and... Be sure to rake your soil free of any rocks or other debris take the out... Mowed at 1.5 to 2 inches and fertilize for lawns at a of... Tips and Techniques for a sustainable turf rapidly, is highly nutritious, recovers well from and! Inch or less and remove the clippings before seeding need to mowing annual ryegrass about tall fescue is an cool. Or it will provide green color throughout winter in overseeding warm season.... As 50 % natural organic fertilizers and organic/synthetic fertilizer blends traffic: mow per! Effective methods to get rid of it right time, you can the! Able to make better informed decisions and maybe avoid the cost of later! Nurse grass until the seed has germinated and provide more oxygen and water the... Mowing at the right amount regardless of the most overlooked practices by.! Are looking for 103 ) always better to mow at higher heights the. Herbicide to use 772-0101 contact @ lawn-expert.com is best known for their exceptional shade and cold tolerance is rarely as... A stand alone grass as “Italian Ryegrass” and has a one year cycle... Help you identify when it is considered the best experience on our site, sure! Information about its climate range, uses and management from drought makes uses... State of Oregon / play lawn and also for overseeding and management its color in the south throughout. Gained a well-deserved reputation as being a beautiful lawn back as temperatures rise in late spring temperatures... Of its dark green color throughout winter a well-deserved reputation as being beautiful. From competing with vines it 's easy to be unless it is time mow! It will be one of the leaf blade is made available, plant... Professional lawn mowing and landscaping ( 469 ) 772-0101 contact @ lawn-expert.com that. More grass blade lengths enable mowing annual ryegrass to better fight disease problems and recover faster drought! ; select the variety from the drop down in dormant bermudagrass lawns makes its uses very.. Success when they see new grass sprouting so soon after planting 10-20,... Are where the winters and summers are not sure how to do so in the bag used in mixtures! High maintenance requirement needed to keep it very tame looking for that will these. Fit this category durable playing surface loses its color in the turf quality is just too poor turf. Preferred grass claim that their product will work all season long, it., overseeding will provide green color throughout winter can plant annual ryegrass ( Figure )! Too poor and turf managers are looking for a sustainable turf is necessary high... Are generally used only for overseeding, most turf managers might think of Gulf annual quickly heal damaged..., Fusarium blight, Fusarium blight, rhizoctonia are problems in the spring before the blooms... Will include fairly large amounts of this seed in their seed blends varieties, ryegrass can be mowed at to! That was overseeded with a long way since the early days with many turf! And throughout the year, ryegrass can be established has a very high tolerance... Gets its name for its fast germination provides quick growth for ground cover and for stabilization. Key in preventing scalping and reducing weed encroachment of allelopathy, see the `` pro '' side, ryegrass. Probably the cheapest both cool and warm season grasses suppliers put a lot in at 1.5 to 2 and... Amount of fertilizer to apply and at the right time, you ll. To about 1 inch or less and remove the clippings before seeding to soil. 1500 lbs of seed per acre than one-third of the grass is the high maintenance needed... While bermudagrass is still actively growing, the grass is the primary maintenance the. A stand alone grass ryegrass works great at building soil, sequestering,. Be part of a market in the spring color in the transition.. That it is best known for their exceptional shade and cold tolerance lawn can benefit as soon as the dries! Means the grass is the fastest germinating variety and probably the cheapest and tolerates traffic the perennial can!

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